How has the game of rugby changed over time?

How has the game of rugby changed over time?

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Rugby may be one of the most popular sports today, but the game and its rules have not stayed the same since its first inception around 1823. Here’s how rugby has changed over time.

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It’s thought that the sport of rugby was born around 1823, when a young boy playing a football match started to run with the ball, thereby establishing a new type of game. Since this time, rugby has gained an army of devoted followers, making it one of the most popular sports of our time.


The first written rules of rugby date back to around 1845, and, surprisingly, they are pretty similar to those still in existence today. The concepts of offside, running a ball out of touch and the banning of forward passes all formed part of these initial rules of the game.

There were some differences, however. According to, rugby in the 1800s focused more on kicking than scoring tries, and it appears that many more players made up a team than today. The game also encouraged the kicking or tripping of an opponent’s legs, known as hacking. This quickly became banned, however, and replaced with shoulder tackling instead.

The Rugby Football Union was set up in 1871 to establish a code of rules for rugby clubs worldwide.

Rugby League

One of the biggest developments in the sport came in 1895, with the creation of the Rugby League. This change of structure came about due to disagreements regarding the payment of players, with a number of teams separating from the Rugby Union to form their own league. Rugby League allowed 13 players per team, and they were paid for their participation in the sport. It was only after 1995 that Rugby Union players received payment, and earned professional, rather than amateur, status.


Rugby is still as fiercely competitive today as it was in its humble beginnings. Like other sports training, such as field hockey drills offered by, there is still immense competition to get a place in the top teams. Both Rugby League and Rugby Union play regular competitions, both nationally and internationally, followed by fans from all over the world.

The Calcutta Cup between England and Scotland teams, and the Six Nations Trophy, are some of the most highly anticipated matches on the rugby sporting calendar.


Are Financial Ties to Clinical Trials and Researchers Distorting Results?

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Clinical trials need to be fair and unbiased, but recent research has found that clinical trials with financial connections to the pharmaceutical industry tend to produce more positive results. This news is worrisome, as it could mean that some treatments and medicines are less effective than they seem.


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The Research

According to the BMJ, data that has been gathered from nearly 200 clinical trials has found that trials that have financial ties to the pharmaceutical industry had 3.57 greater odds of a positive trial outcome. These findings suggest that there is a bias within clinical trials that needs to be eliminated.

The researchers found that 231 (58%) of principle investigators had financial ties to commercial companies that would be affected by the results of the trial. Most of the principle investigators worked as an adviser or a consultant for one of the commercial companies.

This affected the results, as the principle investigators had financial ties in 76% of the trials with positive outcomes, but they only had ties with 49% of the trials with negative outcomes.

The researchers also noted that trials with negative outcomes often remain unpublished, unlike trials with positive outcomes. However, it is possible for investigator bias to be present in the conclusion of negative trials so that there is still a positive spin on a negative trial.

Another issue is that sometimes the results of a trial don’t make sense. For instance, if the results were negative, the commercial companies may try to alter the conclusion. This can mean that sometimes the conclusions don’t match the actual results from the trial, which affects the reliability of the results.

If you are interested in clinical trial services, check out websites such as to learn more.

How to Make Clinical Trial Results More Reliable and Trustworthy

The main issue that affects the credibility of clinical trial results is the problems of bias within clinical trials. The researchers, who work at the University of California, believe that more thought needs to be given to the roles of policy-makers and investigators when it comes to ensuring credible unbiased results. The researchers went on to propose that the best way to fix the issues with bias in clinical trials would be to take multiple steps at once to deal with the problem.

Benefits of 5-HTP

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5-HTP or 5-hydroxytryptophan is the precursor of Serotonin, the monoamine neurotransmitter involved with emotions of happiness, sadness and anxiety. It boosts serotonin level in the brain cells for effective mood communications that reduces chances of depression and insomnia. Recently, 5HTP supplements are extensively used in weight loss programs apart from curing SAD (seasonal affective disorder) and IBS (irritable bowel syndrome).


Useful reviews about 5-HTP:

Nowadays everyone focuses on how to get thin in a quicker way and how to handle wrinkle issues due to aging. People eagerly look for beneficial qualities to these two problems in effective supplements and steroids. Like other weight loss promising drugs, 5-HTP has shown appreciable results in reducing your appetite, intake of excess calories and increasing the basal metabolic rate to cut down stubborn fat from adipocytes. 5-HTP is a naturally occurring compound in Griffonia simplicifolia plant that has revealed a lot of benefits regarding mood fluctuations and cognitive properties. The following write up is about the supplement reviews that will impress you enough to rely on its effective perks.

5-HTP is naturally produced by L-tryptophan, an essential amino acid which cannot be directly synthesised in the body but only supplemented through various food sources like pumpkins, eggs, lentils, chickpeas, garlic, green beans and red meat. On ingestion of food, L-tryptophan enters the liver cells where it is degraded into 5-HTP and secondary metabolites. 5-HTP can now easily travel to the brain via the bloodstream thereby crossing the blood-brain barrier. Sometimes there can be conditions when the concentration of tryptophan is low in the ingested food, which will cause lower production of 5-HTP in the body. During these situations, supplements of 5-HTP can be given as it will fill up the vacant place and provide your body with adequate quantities of the same.

Many users of the product have reported positive impacts on the brain caused by high amount of 5-HTP, thereby gifting with a tranquil state of mind, immense focus, less depression levels and emotions of joy and satisfaction. The practise of using 5-HTP is not new, but has been used in traditional medications to treat patients with depression and anxiety. You can consume this prescribed anti-depressant from any genuine retailer through online transactions. Current studies have shown that a dose range of 150mg to 400mg of 5-HTP taken every day continuously for 2 months exhibited similar impacts on anxiety reduction as 20mg- 40mg daily of Prozac (fluoxetine). The relaxation effect of 5-HTP can help treat acute insomnia so that you can easily fall asleep without the use of any strong sedatives or tranquilizers.

What are the safety measures to follow while using 5-HTP?

While buying 5-HTP supplementary product, one should keep in mind the following factors that can save you from being cheated and adverse side effects:

  • Formulation and composition strength.
  • Correct dosage patterns.
  • Fillers and additional components that are mixed like vitamins and minerals.
  • Legally approved maximum retail price.
  • Stacks, and finally
  • Supplement reviews from customers.

To get the best outcome out of the product, one must be aware of his or her resistance capacity, any serious biological disorders and the location of the manufacturer where the drug is made to avoid any misleading or adversities.


Knowing The Right Source For Your Supplement

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The best part about getting anything related to health product is ease of availability. Now this can be a boon and a bane for some as well. With so many options people tend to lose their way. Especially sports athletes and body building enthusiasts know it well. To get ahead of the competitors and make your body look better you can only trust the best products. Nothing else is worthwhile and safe when it comes to supplements for enhancement. Online or offline you should know better which means to trust and where exactly to acquire the needed product.

Body enhancing

There are several aspects of body building that needs the person to concentrate on what they consume. Million dollar question is how to cut fat while retaining and building more muscle in the body? The answer is by using the perfect supplement in the form of Clenbuterol. This is one super drug that helps the user to retain all of the muscles gained while cutting the fat from body during a cutting cycle. Being a beta-2 symphatomimetic compound helps the cause of the various users. Remaining issue is to get only the authentic product while ordering online. There are many regulations in each of the nations. This means that all countries regulate the sale of certain drugs that they consider to be control worthy.

Due to such a predisposition nobody can buy a anabolic steroid in the USA without proper prescription. For the users in UK, the case is totally different as they are allowed to buy such medications without any such bondage. They can easily buy the stuff online and order it to their home without issues. The need is to ensure such people are safeguarding their interests by ordering online on authentic websites from the states. Product is supposed to increase your stamina, energy, and performance which puts it in critical category for the users. Not getting it locally means importing it is a way to get it in your hands. But when it is about your body be sure to check for authentic and totally trustworthy product. Clenbuterol is not a steroid that can cause massive muscle growth like any instead it works slowly but steady. This is why it is unlike other drugs when it comes to side effects and problems to human body. Using it in cutting cycles can be really advantageous to the athletes.

Placing order at right place

Clen is a beta-2 symphatomimetic compound that can provide desired results with regards to fat cutting in the body. To order it from the right place is the best thing to do when buying online. Plus do a great deed by consuming it under the aegis of a good trainer or physician to avoid any kind of side effects later. Now, people from all over the world can get the fantastic supplement that can enhance their performance without any kind of problems at all. This is way better than any other drug that you may have ever come across.

Get the Best Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy St. Louis

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If you have discovered you have Diabetic Retinopathy it can be a very difficult as you learn to understand your condition. The treatments can seem precarious and frightening to think about if you have been diagnosed with this condition. The good news is that the earlier this is diagnosed the better you can respond to treatment. Preserving your eyesight is an absolutely positive goal for Diabetic Retinopathy St. Louis.


Finding Professionals Who Can Treat You Effectively

The physicians who treat this condition are well education on the progression and treatment of this condition. The quicker the condition is diagnosed the better the outcome for you as the patient which preserves your eyesight and keeps you healthier in the long run. It is important for early treatment and diagnosis. It may seem frightening to begin treatment but the best option is to get treatment and have your condition monitored by the best physicians who handle Diabetic Retinopathy St. Louis.

Give your Eyes the Care they Need

Your eyesight is important and your attention to this need is also imperative. Do not procrastinate or give up. The body and the eyes are amazing in the way it can repair and preserve your health with good treatment and options for you to follow at home as part of your physicians’ regimen. It is time to put off procrastination and listen to good advice on how to keep your condition from worsening instead of improvement you need for a good quality of life with your eyesight. Find the best care for your Diabetic Retinopathy St. Louis.

Set Goals for Preservation of your Eyesight and Keep them

There are several treatments such as Scatter Laser Treatment that can improve the eyesight you have. So talk these options over with your physician as options for treatment. This is an inpatient treatment and can stop the progression of abnormal blood vessels.

You might want to talk over the possibility of Vitrectomy as a part of your procedures in treatment. This type of surgery is in the hospital overnight but it can stop the progression of Diabetic Retinopathy In its path. Keeping the eyesight you have and stopping the damaging threats to that eyesight are very important to discuss as a part of your treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy St. Louis.

Don’t Procrastinate on Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy St. Louis

Get your first appointment in line and get going on the fight to preserve your eyesight. Procrastination can only enhance the worst scenarios instead of encouraging the best scenarios for your diagnosis. Find the most experienced and professional touch in the physician you choose to treat your condition and follow the instructions of your particular treatment regimen. It is always important to have the most positive outlook on any diagnosis and treat conditions early for the best results possible. Do not trust time to heal these conditions. Trust professional educated physicians to help you get your eyesight back on track as soon as possible when treating Diabetic Retinopathy St. Louis.

Find out the Best Mouthwash for Bad Breath When You Visit ToothStars

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mouthwash-mythHaving a beautiful and healthy set of teeth means that you need to take care of your mouth as consistently as possible. It also means that you need to commit to doing it everyday, not just by regularly brushing your teeth, but also to gargle, rinse and floss on a daily basis. Doing so will help prevent your mouth from developing any unwanted bacteria build up and gum diseases.  Mouthwash has a lot of different remedies that you can use to kill the bacteria in your mouth like fluoride; this ingredient will help you keep your mouth fresh and away from cavities. Bad breath can be a killer if not treated carefully, which is why you should always make sure to pick the best mouthwash for bad breath and gum disease.

But the normal question being, out of all the mouthwash products in the world, which one do I choose? Every person has a different need and a different requirement for choosing mouthwash, which is why tooth stars has developed some tips on how to select the right one for you. As indicated in their list of helpful pointers, here are some mouth wash products you can try experimenting with:

  • Colgate’s Fluorigard (Alcohol-Free) Mouth Rinse – As recommended by toothstars, there are a lot of mouthwash products that cater to a lot of different oral problems like sensitive teeth or extreme bad breath. For this specific mouth rinse, it is used to help prevent tooth decay. It is 100 percent alcohol free, and is most effective before going to bed and waking up in the morning. It is also the most recommended for kids because it is not too strong and completely safe.
  • Listerine’s Mint Stay-White Arctic Mouthwash – This mouth wash is one of the best choices to pick if you want something strong and will help your teeth stay white and shiny.  One rinse with this product and you will automatically feel fresh for the entire day. It includes zinc chloride that prevents your teeth from building up tartar and tooth stains.
  • Dentyl’s Active Refreshing-Clove Plaque Fighter – This mouthwash is the best for gum disease, because it kills almost 100 percent of bacteria found in the mouth, and it is proven to be very effective. The taste is quite unpleasant, but it makes up by protecting your mouth from bad breath.
  • Gengigel Mouthrinse – This mouthwash is specially picked by toothstars because it is the best option for people who have any kind of soreness, inflammation or bleeding in the mouth. It generally cushions and protects parts of your mouth to avoid any pain or discomfort.

Consider these options when looking for the best mouthwash for bad breath.

Rejuvenate your Face and Neck

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If you’re not entirely happy with the way your face and neck look as you start to get older you’re definitely not alone. There are a lot of people that don’t want to accept the aging process, especially when it seems to be a little bit hard on them. So what is there you can do about it? Well there’s actually quite a bit.

Types of Face and Neck Treatments

The types of treatments that are available to you are actually varied more than you might think. Whether you’re looking for something quick and easy that you can do at home or something that’s going to provide you with longer lasting and more extreme results, you definitely have some options:

  • Radio-frequency firming for sagging skin
  • Hyaluronic acid filler for lines
  • Botox in the face and neck for wrinkles
  • Vascular laser for bruising
  • Photodynamic rejuvination for less sun damage
  • Trichloroacetic acid peel for less sun damage
  • Brow lift for wrinkles
  • Blepharoplasty for bags under the eyes
  • Fat injections for fuller features
  • Face lift for all over improvement
  • Mini-facelift for all over improvement at lower cost
  • Neck lift for sagging skin

Are You A Candidate?

Well the truth is you don’t need to be getting older in order to get any of these treatments. All you need is to be unhappy with the way your face and neck currently look and you can get started on the path to making some changes in your life. After all, why should you have to live with something that you don’t really like about yourself? Any of these procedures are considered cosmetic (though they can very occasionally be considered medically necessary) and that means you can choose to do them whenever you want.

  • Do you have parts of your face and neck you are unhappy with?
  • Has your doctor found that you are physically capable of completing the treatments chosen?
  • Are you psychologically ready for the changes to your face and neck?
  • Do you have a certified dermatologist to complete the procedure?


Talking with Your Doctor

When it comes to face and neck treatments Tempe AZ definitely has it for you. All you need to do is find a doctor and that’s usually going to start with talking to your doctor or someone you know who has had treatments before. You will want a dermatologist to work with you on these processes after all, to make sure that you’re doing them right and that you’re going to get the results that you’re looking for. This requires someone who can explain each procedure and help you find the one that’s going to help you the most.

In the end, no one can really tell you what’s the best option for you. The key is making sure that when you look in the mirror you’re happy with what you see. If that’s happening already then you don’t need this type of treatment, but if it’s not, then it’s time to start looking at what needs to change to make you happy with yourself again.

Sciatica Pain Treatment Options

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Sciatica pain treatment options are available at a number of different facilities in New Jersey and throughout the United States of America. The causes of sciatica are varied and so are the treatments offered.


What Is Sciatica?

Pain is felt in the legs, buttocks, lower back and feet caused by the sciatic nerve being pinched. Pinching can occur due to slipped discs, bone spurs, herniated discs, degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis and other spinal issues. Even sitting for extended time on a hard surface can cause sciatica pain.

The sciatic nerve is actually the largest nerve in the entire body and runs from the bottom of the spine down to the toes and feet. It provides feeling to these areas and is essentially in control of the muscles in the lower extremities also. Sciatica pain can be as a result of sports injuries, aging, infection, or tumors as well as other contributing factors.


Sciatica pain can start gradually and become progressively worse. Pain is often felt on only one side, but is possible bilaterally. There can be tingling in the feet along with numbness. Potentially there could be loss of bowel and/or bladder control. Sciatica pain can be mild or can produce total loss of mobility.


To alleviate the inflammation of the sciatic nerve patients must rest. Pain is treated with an anti-inflammatory medication and muscle-relaxants can be used for more severe cases. Forms of physical therapy and exercise aid in relaxing the pinched nerve.

Sciatica Pain NJ (New Jersey)

The Becker Spine and Support Institute uses another treatment called spinal decompression. Decompression is NOT the same as traction. Rather it gradually lengthens the spine and decompresses the sciatic nerve. This decompressing process creates a vacuum in the spinal discs allowing realignment and release of pressure. Treatment consists of acquiring 20-25 sessions over a four to six week time frame. The majority of patients will start to respond to treatment within seven to ten sessions. Being a non-invasive procedure makes it extremely appealing to patients. To obtain more information from the institute call (973) 535-2774. Decompression therapy is also available at Carteret Comprehensive Medical Center in New Jersey at one of two locations; in either Edison or Monroe.

Dr. John Lipani at Princeton Neurological Surgery offers a very personalized treatment for sciatica pain. If the usual treatments fail to give relief, he will perform surgery. His aim is to free the nerve from the impending cause of its compression in order to restore correct function and eradicate the pain. Dr. Lipani performs virtually non-invasive forms of spinal surgery as well as more complicated procedures. His sciatica treatment is image guided and customized for every patient’s personal needs. Call 609-890-3400 to learn more or inquire about treatment.


Although sciatica pain is not life threatening it can cause extreme excruciating pain and should not be ignored. There is relief and healing to be experienced. Simply make an appointment with your physician to be assessed and possibly referred to one of these New Jersey treatment facilities.


Dealing With Depression

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Depression and other mental disorders have a serious effect on both the individuals suffering from these conditions and their loved ones. When left untreated, major depressive disorder can negatively impact a person’s work or school performance, family relationships, sleep, and overall health. In severe cases, it can even lead to suicide.

But there is hope in the fight against the negative effects of major depressive disorder, anxiety, and other mental conditions. Whether depression and other mental disorders come as the result of biological changes, social factors, or psychological conditions, the abundance of resources available today makes getting help easier than ever before.

Alternative Technology

While prescription medications continue to dominate the treatment methods for depression and other mental conditions, an increasing number of individuals are turning to alternative treatments such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Therapy (TMS). TMS uses magnetic pulses to electrically relieve symptoms of depression, either activating or inhibiting neural activity in different parts of the brain to deal with the effects of depression. This non-invasive procedure has been found to be highly effective in clinical studies, with few side effects reported among individuals who have used this treatment.

Other similar technologies—such as Dynamic Neurofeedback and Electrotherapy Stimulation—also deliver gentle pulses that help the brain cope with symptoms of stress and anxiety. These treatments have even been found to help with conditions as diverse as ADHD and auditory hallucination schizophrenia. While continued medication is sometimes required to manage the effects of chronic depression, these alternative technologies serve as a great way to help individuals find mental healing.

Professional Counseling

The advice of a professional counselor is often sought when an individual is suffering from anxiety or depression. Psychotherapy (also referred to as cognitive behavioral therapy) in particular has become especially popular, as this method assists individuals in recognizing and dealing with unhealthy thoughts and behaviors on their own.

By working with a professional counselor, individuals are able to more easily identify when they are falling into negative thought and behavioral patterns. Counselors work with their clients to develop healthy coping mechanisms and ensure that they don’t fall back into the self-destructive habits that fuel chronic depression.

Recognizing You Need Help

Of course, none of these methods of dealing with depression will be of much use if a depressed individual and their family members fail to recognize the symptoms of the condition. Regardless of the root cause behind the depressive disorder, there are some common symptoms that most people suffering from the condition display.

One of the most noticeable signs of major depressive disorder is a low mood that lasts for two weeks or more. This low mood pervades everything in a person’s life, even causing them to no longer enjoy their favorite activities. This often manifests itself as a person withdraws from social activities that they usually enjoy. An affected individual may become lethargic or easily agitated, or complain of frequent headaches and fatigue. Changes in weight are also fairly common. Trouble sleeping—or alternatively, oversleeping—are another common side effect of major depressive disorder.

Perhaps most telling is the way you feel about yourself. Individuals suffering from major depressive disorder often focus excessively on feelings of guilt, regret, worthlessness, or even self-hatred. If you have noticed these symptoms in yourself or a loved one, don’t wait to get help. Talk with a doctor or another trusted individual to determine what should be done.


Whether an individual suffering from major depressive disorder decides to work with a professional therapist, use prescribed medication, seek treatment using new alternative technologies, or perhaps combine these services, the most important thing is to seek help. The sooner you act, the sooner you will be able to receive the vital assistance that is needed to return to a normal lifestyle.

How to Whiten Your Teeth Without Hurting Your Gums

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We all want to have nice, even, and white teeth, however, how much pain are we willing to go through to achieve them?

Having white teeth is supposed to be a sign of health, however, some people put a lot of stress on their oral health when they attempt to whiten their teeth. This has to do with the bleaching chemicals present in these whitening products which also make contact with our gums and wreak havoc on the enamel of our teeth. But are all whitening products so bad?

That’s something that we’re about to get into

The common active ingredient in tooth whiteners is peroxide which is a bleaching agent. Though when applied in small concentrations or dosage, is not that harmful, it can quickly become detrimental to the state of our teeth when applied too frequently or left on too long.

Type of whitening products

There are several different categories of teeth whiteners, from toothpastes, gels, strips or dental light treatments. They all evolved at different times and employ similar enough technologies, all with the sole purpose of whitening teeth. Each comes with its own hits and misses, but now let’s look at their effect on our health.

Toothpaste- Whitening toothpaste usually has a minimal amount of peroxide meaning that though there might not be that much damage to your teeth, you won’t see much of a result either, at least not without prolonged used.

Tray and Gel- This treatment involves squeezing a peroxide gel into shaped trays and putting them on your teeth. The problem is that this gel often comes in contact with gums, and can lead to inflammation, bleaching, or even a receding gum line with frequent use. If you ever see anyone with white gums, this is the reason that it’s happening. No worries, it will return to its original hue, however before that the gums will become very red due to inflammation.

Strips- Whitening strips have become popular in the last few years thanks to how easy they are to use. No more messy liquids, squirting tubes or awkward trays. However, the problem still remains. If you want to get the entire surface of your teeth, you’ll most likely be applying some of it to your gums. Also, because of their ease of use, people tend to get carried away and whiten their teeth too often, exposing them to a plethora of problems that are difficult to fix.

Dental Application: Teeth whitening done in a professional dental setting is a safe, effective way to brighten your smile. That’s because the dentist or technician carefully paints the solution onto your teeth, avoiding your gums, and then activates the hydrogen peroxide with light. This doesn’t mean that your teeth won’t be sensitive for a few days, but you will see results. Make sure you go with a qualified and trusted professional with a history of good results and safe habits. Do due diligence, ask for references, and read reviews- it’s your right since you are trusting this person, not just with your appearance but with your health.

Whichever whitening method you choose to engage in, remember that going overboard is the worst thing you can do. Specialists will agree that occasional whitening is nothing to worry about, however becoming reliant on it can have bad effects later on. From deteriorating and receding gums, to thin and worn enamel, not only will your mouth ache, it can actually lead to your teeth coming stained more easily.

As with everything, moderation is key. So just sit back, relax, and smile knowing that you have your priorities straight.